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Satellites: Mipangidwe Yamtundu Wapatali ya Kumwamba


Tcherani

Osati ochuluka omwe anatsala kuti 1945 akhale chaka chodabwitsa - icho chinawona mapeto a nkhondo yaikulu kwambiri padziko lonse yomwe yakhala ikudziwikapo; Purezidenti wotalika kwambiri ku America nthawi Franklin Delano Roosevelt (pulezidenti wathu wa 32nd) adapita kwamuyaya ndipo adatsogoleredwa ndi Pulezidenti wake Harry S. Truman; United Nations inakonzedwa ndi kukhazikitsidwa mu mwezi wa October chaka chomwecho ndipo, potsiriza, Arthur C. Clarke, Wolemba mabuku, filosofi, woyang'ana pansi pa madzi, ndi wolemba sayansi, ananeneratu molondola za kubwera ndi kugwiritsa ntchito ma satellites opangidwa ndi anthu.

Bambo Clarke anakhala mmodzi mwa anthu atatu omwe analemba mabuku a Sayansi-Fiction m'nthaŵi yake komanso adaloseratu kuti kubwera kwa mafoni ndi GPS ku 1956. Analimbikitsidwa chifukwa cha zochitika zake zaumwini ndi zasayansi mu AD 2000, ndipo anafa mu 2008. Iye anamupanga iye Kanema Kuneneratu mu magazini ya sayansi ya ku British Wireless World monga kalata kwa mkonzi. Mukhoza kuyang'ana ndi chiyanjano ichi: Lakdiva.org/clarke/1945ww/1945ww_feb_058.html.

Fig04Clarke kwenikweni anapanga makalata a 2 chaka chimenecho: chimodzi chimene anatumiza ku magaziniyo ndi kalata yachiwiri yambiri yomwe inalembedwa pang'ono. Poyamba, a Kanema Lingaliro linakhala lofanana kwambiri ndi malo osungirako malo. Ankayenera kuti akhale ndi antchito ogwira ntchito ndipo angakhale ngati mapepala othandizira ma rockets komanso mauthenga ake. Ananeneratu za kubwera kwa satellita m'zaka za 50, koma zinachitika mofulumira kwambiri kuposa izo; Komabe, panalibe njira yothandiza yogwiritsira ntchito ndege zonyamula ndege monga momwe adanenera. Lingaliro la ma satellites a geo (kapena orbs omwe amakhala kumalo amodzi ndikutsatira kuzungulira kwa Dziko lapansi) sanali oyamba kwa Clarke; Iye anali kumanga pa ntchito ya Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.

Achirasha Satellite Sputnik inakwaniritsa mapeto a 1957. Patatha miyezi yambiri ya 4, kumayambiriro kwa 1958, a US anali nawo Kanema (Explorer I) mu orbit. Mu 1959, Navy ya ku America inayambitsa nyengo yoyamba Kanema: Vanguard 2, yomwe siinagwire ntchito moyenera koma inatsatiridwa patangopita chaka chimodzi mu 1960 ndi TIROS 1, yomwe inali ndi cholinga chimodzimodzi ndi yomwe idakonzedweratu; Chaka chomwecho, kukambirana koyamba Kanema, The Echo, idayambitsidwa. The Echo anali chabe Kanema; Chinali chinthu chokha chokhazikitsa zizindikiro. 1962 inawona kukhazikitsidwa kwa ma satellites awiri oyamba okhudzana ndi mauthenga: Relay ndi Telstar. Mu 1964, malo oyamba geo Kanema, Syncom 3, idayambitsidwa. Zaka zaposachedwapa, chiwerengero cha ma satellites omwe amayendayenda akuzungulira pa 1000 kapena kotero. Koma ma satellite ochepa okha amavomerezedwa kuti afotokozere zithunzi zapadziko lapansi.

Chojambula chachikulu kwambiri Kanema (Zomwe tikudziŵa (kutchula nyimbo zovuta) ndi International Space Station. Osaphatikizapo 'mbewu' yamakono ya satellitesSat3 Posachedwa posachedwapa, chiwerengero cha ma satellites omwe atumizidwa ndi oposa makumi asanu ndi limodzi mphambu mazana asanu. Ma satellites amakono amadzala mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi ntchito, monga: Intelligence / Reconnaissance (Military / Government), Kulankhulana, ndi Kuwonetsetsa Padziko Lapansi (Zamalonda, monga nyengo yowonetsera nyengo ndi mapu), koma pakuwona malo, pali Otchedwa Killer Satellites (Military), omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito potetezera powononga mfuti ya adani ndi kuukira powononga zipangizo zotsutsana ndi malo (ie satellites ena). Pakadali pano, United States, China ndi Russia ndizo zokha zomwe zatha kuwononga zolinga mu malo. Ma satellites oyendayenda amagwiritsidwa ntchito pa GPS. Ma biosatellites amapangidwa kuti azitengera zinthu zamoyo kumalo (makamaka omwe si anthu) kuti azifufuza.

Satellites ali ndi njira zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimagwiritsidwanso ntchito, zomwe zimasankhidwa malinga ndi cholinga chawo (kapena mwachisokonezo ndi kuwonongeka kwa mankhwala). Zikometsera zili ndi zigawo zambiri; Izi ndi: Kutalika, Centric, Eccentricity, Kufuna, Nthano, Zapadera, ndi Synchronous. Masentimita ndi satellites akutalika kutali. Mapulaneti a padziko lapansi ali ndi mapiri a 4, kuyambira pansi (mpaka ku 1240 mailosi), paulendo (mpaka 22,236), ndi Geosynchronous (22,236 mailosi pamwamba), ndi njira yonse kufika ku High Earth Orbit (kupitirira 22,236 mailosi koma pano Masewera olimbitsa thupi). Ma satellites opangidwa ndi anthu omwe ali pamtunda wapansi padziko lapansi akhala akuwathandiza kwambiri ndipo amaikidwa pamtunda uwu kuti asawachotsere ma satellite; Mtundu woterewu umatchedwa Kutaya kapena Junk kapena Manda (mwa njira yotchulidwa, mwezi nthawi zambiri 238,900 mailosi pamwamba pa dziko lapansi). Pamene a Kanema Ali pamtundu wa orbit, liwiro lake lozungulira lili pafupi ndi 9800 mapazi pamphindi; Pamtunda uwu, zimatengera chinthu 1 tsiku lozungulira dziko lapansi (tsiku losawerengeka liri pansi pa 4 maminiti osachepera maola 24) omwe akufanana ndi liwiro la dziko lapansi.

03_Clarke_BeltZomwe zimayendera ma satellites zimagwiritsidwa ntchito, mpaka pano, ndi: Zinyama (padziko lonse lapansi), Mlengalenga (kuzungulira Dzuŵa), ndi Areocentric (kuzungulira Mars). Kusuntha kumakhala ngati ayi KanemaKupita kwa orbit kuli kozungulira kapena kosakanikirana. Pali maulendo a 4 omwe amawonekera kwambiri padziko lapansi: maulendo opititsa patsogolo, kuthamanga kwa mpweya, molniya orbit, ndi orbit. Mapulogalamu ambiri amakhala ndi chikhalidwe cha 63. 4 ° ndi kuzungulira dzikoli patsiku lapansi; Makamaka, amakhala kumalo amodzi (koma osati monga momwe zimakhalira Pansi pa dziko lapansi), pamtunda wake, mosiyana ndi momwe zimakhalira. Kuwonjezeka kwa orbit ndi KanemaKusiyanasiyana kwa njira yoyera yozungulira - motero, mapiri a polar ali pafupifupi 90 °. Zochitika zachinyengo zimaphimba njira zingapo zovuta; Imodzi mwa zitsanzo zosavuta kwambiri zomwe ndizobwezeretsanso njira, zomwe zimangotanthauza kuti zimatsutsana ndi momwe thupi lakumwamba limayendera; Kuthamangitsanso kwabitali sikugwiritsidwa ntchito kawirikawiri chifukwa kumatengera mafuta ochulukirapo kuti atha kukhazikika kosatha. Maulendo apadera ndi mphambano ya Sun ndi yozungulira mwezi, orbit ndi mwezi wokongola kwambiri. Orbit-synchronous orbit ndi monkey yosiyana; Mu mtundu uwu wa orbit, a Kanema Imadutsa malo omwewo nthawi imodzimodzi tsiku lililonse; Ngati mukufunayo, mphika ungakhoze kukhazikitsidwa kotero kuti nthawi zonse imakhala kuwala kwa dzuwa, komwe kumakhala kochititsa chidwi kwambiri, ndipo mithunzi iliyonse yomwe imakumana nayo ili pafupi malo omwewo tsiku ndi tsiku.

Monga tafotokozera kale, ma satellites mu mphambano yoyendayenda amachititsa kusintha kwakukulu kuzungulira thupi lakumwamba limene iwo amazungulira mozungulira momwe thupi limasinthira muSat1 Nthawi yomweyo zimatengera thupi kuti lizungulire kamodzi; Mitundu yonse yosiyanasiyana ya maulendo ofanana ndizosiyana kapena kusintha kwa izi. Pamene a Kanema Kapena thupi lakumwamba limazungulira thupi lalikulu lakumwamba ndi chilakolako china kupatula 0 ° ndipo amawonedwa kuchokera pamalo omwe amakhalapo (omwe ambiri amaganiza kuti ali pamwamba pa dziko lapansi), kayendedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka Kanema, Ngati amawoneka nthawi zonse, amawoneka kuti amatha kusintha mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya chifaniziro chosokonekera cha 8 pamwambamwamba; Chitsanzo ichi chimatchedwa analemma. Ngati mphambano ndi kusinthasintha ndizomwe zimakhala zofanana, zenizeni zofanana ndi izi zowoneka bwino 8 sintha. Zifukwa zosiyanasiyana zimapangitsa kuti pakhale ndondomeko yeniyeni ya "mutated" yotereyi. A Kanema ndi zozungulira zozungulira pamtunda wa 0 ° akuti ali ndi Geostationary (aka "Clarke" - pambuyo pa wolemba) orbit. Zikuwoneka kukhalabe pamalo omwewo mofanana ndi dziko nthawi zonse pa kutalika kwa 22,236 mailosi pamwamba pa dziko lapansi. Icho akuwonekera Choyimira; Ndipotu, ndikuwombera mlengalenga pamtunda wa 9800 pamphindi kuti ukhalebe malo ake padziko lapansi.

Pambuyo poyambira ma satellites, tinayamba kumanga ma satellites ovuta komanso odula, kuphatikizapo mabelu ambiri ndi mluzu, ziphuphu zambiri, mauthenga othandizira ena. Kwa nthawi yayitali, kukhala ndi Kanema Zinali zotheka kwa maboma ena ndi chiwerengero chochepa cha mabungwe akuluakulu, chifukwa cha luso komanso luso laumisiri kuti likhalebe Kanema Mumtunda. Chitsanzo ichi chasintha kwambiri mochedwa; Chizolowezi chatsopano chachitika. Chinthu chachikulu mu satellite tsopano ndi chaching'ono komanso chotchipa. Zomwe zimatchedwa nano-satellites zakhudza mlengalenga; "1- rocket / 1-Kanema"Paradigm sichitsitsimutsa. Ma satellites akuluakulu adakali ofunika - musandipeze; Koma zotsatirazi zotsatirazi Kanema Chitukuko chimapereka mwayi watsopano. Tsopano, kukhazikitsa limodzi kungakhale ndi pamwamba pa satellites makumi atatu. Chifukwa cha chitukuko cha sayansi, ambiri mwa satellites ang'onoang'ono akhoza kukhala ndi luso lomwe Sputnik ali nalo, kupatula kukhala ang'onoang'ono, otchipa ndi osakaniza kwambiri, kwambiri Mofulumirirako. Chifukwa cholipira ndi zofunikira zamkati, malo ena okha omwe angasankhidwe pa Dziko angasinthidwe / amawonedwa ndi Kanema Nthawi zonse. Izi tsopano zikuyamba kusintha; Kufika kwa ma satellites ang'onoang'ono ndi otchipa kudzatsegula njira zatsopano zotsalira pazolumikizi, kufalitsa ndi kufufuza.


Tcherani
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Ryan Salazar

Mkonzi-Mkulu, Wofalitsa at Beat Magazine, LLC.
Ryan anayamba kugwira ntchito pa makampani opanga masewera ndi masitolo pamsinkhu wa zaka khumi ndi ziwiri! Iye wapanga mapulogalamu a kanema, adamanga malo akuluakulu opangira ntchito, olemba mabuku ena opanga makampani ndipo anali womangamanga kwa zaka pafupifupi khumi. Ryan poyamba analemba kwa Broadcast Engineering Magazine, Creative COW ndi ntchito zake zafotokozedwa m'mabuku ambirimbiri.
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